For all motherboards, you will need a 24 pin and 4+4 pin CPU/EPS cable.
For graphics cards, the exact PCIE cables needed depend on the make and model of your card. I recommend navigating to the manufacturer's website and checking the specifications for power requirements.
The vast majority of recent graphics cards require a single 8 pin PCIE cable, 8 & 6 pin PCIE cables, or 2x 8 pin PCIE cables.
SATA power cables are used to connect 2.5/3.5" HDDs or SSDs. They are also used to power most AIO liquid coolers.
Molex power cables are most commonly used to power custom watercooling pumps.